“Kyoto Protocol” is the code of behavior set by UNFCCC to overpower the environmental crisis ratified at Kyoto. What are the environmental crises?
- Increasing amount of Carbon gases in air.
- Continuous threat of global warming.
- More and more industrial activities.
- Lessen the green elements from environment.
- Rise in the pollution level.
“Kyoto Protocol” is a treaty made in 1997 after foreseen the environmental crises. It is to be presented by UNFCCC port to aware the countries about global environment issue. It is said that there is need to reduce the industrial activities and using such technologies which are less carbon gases emitter. Another option for the excess carbon emitter countries was that they will follow the tradition of trading means they will depend upon other countries which are non-industrial or even have the capacity to reduce their emission level.
Although all the points in treaty were quite authentic and reason to be signed with harmony yet it took eight years to come into process. The reason was there was ratio of 55 %: 55 that the condition was at least 55 countries to be the member of this treaty that collectively reduce 55% of GHG emission. The target sets for the participant countries was cavil at 5.2 % as whole. This percentage is further distributed according to the countries contribution level to the environment. Some are at alarming level others are in need of increase while some are moderate so is the case with allotment of the reduction target.
It is observed that target sets in 1997 have been increased when ratified at 2005. The treaty would be renewed in 2012 after the negotiation among participant countries. The target is still inaccessible because no one is serious about global warming and do not consider it their responsibility. They are ignoring the individual contribution and hesitate to reduce their industrial activities or even adopting the safe ways for the disposal of waste.
The three major areas have been set to monitor the environment effected activities in the Kyoto Protocol. These are;
- GHG Emission Trading
- CDM (Clean Development Mechanism
- JI (Joint Implementation)
The impact of GHG emission trading is also not efficient because India and China once in need of boost the industry who bought the credits from America are now the enormous pollutant countries. This has taken the reverse affect on the environment.
“Kyoto Protocol” was ratified to make it an obligation to fulfill by the participant countries. At time the enthusiastic countries concerned for the global environment has been overlooked in the coming century. They were not ready to do compromise on the issue of Global warming.
The Kyoto Protocol has a particular frame structure according to the economies of different countries. As there are three categories;
- Advanced Countries
- Developed Countries
- Underdeveloped Countries
Advanced countries are those which have attained the balance between production, emission and recycling.
Developed countries are the major contributors towards the crises of global warming and GHG emissions. They are the target countries in the treaty to be ratified and forcefully advised to reduce the emission level.
Developed countries are the centre of the pressure from UNFCCC and are monitored according to a plan devised by UNFCCC. Registry system is there to enter a full record. Every country has the log to fill and report the organization their yearly activities. This record helps to track the activities and provide opportunity to check the responsible country. The organization refreshes the compliance to remind the participant their responsibilities and obligations. This organization presents the plan to follow during the high level of GHG emission level to resist the danger.
Underdeveloped countries are the helping hand for the developed countries to assist them by signing the emission trading.
Hybrid renewable energy technology is the latest innovation in the field of technology. This idea is penetrating rapidly not only at commercial level but also on household level. It facilitates when one system fail to work it is automatically switched to the second system. In this way multiple sources of energy are attached on preference level that which system should start work after the failure of first system.
Drawback in Renewable energy
The concept of renewable energy is quickly making its place because of the environment threat. Majority of the renewable energies are from natural environment for example sun, wind, tide, wave etc. They are all weather dependant like if sun is shining brightly then solar panels would be able to produce energy similarly if wind is blowing at a certain rate per hour it would renewable in to electricity. Same is the case with wave and tidal phenomenon.
Applying one system to gain energy is fine as we need energy to perform various tasks now what if that one system fails to work? This situation develops the concept of Hybrid renewable energy.
Mechanism of Hybrid Renewable Energy
In hybrid renewable energy system is designed by joining multiple power systems on to one port so that if one fails seconds starts the same work and in case of second system failure third comes to take its place for the continuation of same work. This hybrid renewable energy is where profitable there are certain issues to put it in function.
Features of Hybrid Renewable Energy
Hybrid renewable energy is of versatile and has many useful features;
- As it is renewable so it is in abundance and long lasting.
- It is cheap source of energy as hybrid is built among sustainable and renewable energies. Only solar energy is costly among all these sources. Research is carrying on this to make it accessible to every layman.
- It emits less rather zero carbon dioxide in the environment.
Hybrid Renewable Energy is guaranteed clean and safe source of energy. It helps to decrease the pollution level. It ensures the supply of energy in the form of heat or electricity even in every condition as it hybrids with the other sources of energy to shift on them one by one. In some areas wind is blowing at certain level which is suitable for hybrid like solar + wind. In hot region hybrid of solar + fuel is quite effective. We can put solar energy in preference and in case of bad weather or during night hours it can be switched to fuel system. Also if a hybrid of solar + generator is created it will be a good source of energy in daylight consuming sunlight directly and using the generator at night with solar conserving power.
Disadvantages of Hybrid Renewable Energy
Individual energy has its own separate set up so it needs proper place to arrange them without making them an obstacle at home or company.
- It need special environment like solar energy is not attainable if clouds drifting on the sky. Solar panels would be ineffective in case of dim sunlight. Their capacity of producing energy becomes less. Also it is ineffective in the evening or night hours.
- Hybrid renewable technology is dependent on the region and capacity. It is not possible to utilize every type of renewable technology where you want. As there is changing of weather around the year same with the different continents. Some areas are hot some are cold. So it is not possible to apply the hybrid of renewable energies. There is need to attach fossil fuel energy system with either solar, water or wind renewable energies.
Global Warming also known as the dark side of our unchecked industrial process can simply be defined as the increase in the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere, landmasses, and oceans. According to scientists the earth’s temperature is changing at rates faster than the normal rate due to the increase in the levels of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. For example carbon dioxide aids in blocking the heat in the atmosphere which leads to the temperature rising gradually. If the emission of carbon dioxide remains unchecked the glaciers would melt leading to severe flooding. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has stated that the rise in temperature over the last couple of decades has been due to the large concentrations of greenhouse gases due to activities such as burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, burning of oil, etc.
History of Global Warming
Over the past 100 years the level of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere has risen intensely. Once again the main cause of this has been the burning of large quantity of fossil fuels, coal, petroleum, etc. The global temperature has also risen by almost 0.6 degrees Celsius within the last century. Scientists believe that half of this rise in temperature was caused by humans alone and that if the human race does not act now the earth’s temperature will continue to increase by 1.4 to 5.8 degrees Celsius or in other words 2.5 to 10.4 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century. This increase in temperature does not seem to be of much significance. However, it must be noted that during the last ice age the earth’s temperature was only 2.2 degrees Celsius cooler than it is today.
Changes in Climate
The magnitude of this increase in the earth’s temperature can be very overwhelming. Scientists believe that the polar regions of the northern hemisphere in specific will heat up more than other parts of the planets therefore leading to the melting of glaciers. Global warming will also lead to the sea levels rising causing cities on islands or along the coasts to submerge in water. Some other major concerns are that most likely majority of the plant and animal life will become extinct, agriculture will no longer be the same, and last but not the least there will be an increase in hurricanes and droughts. Basically global warming will lead to a shift in climate change such as, the areas that have snowfall will no longer have snow and the areas with no snow in the winters will begin to experience snowfall.
Use of Green Energy
Green energy or the use of alternative energy can help us revive the beauty of our planet. Green energy is the use of those energy sources which do not generate any harmful chemicals and gases which are dangerous for our survival. The alternative energy sources like solar energy, wind power, tidal power and geothermal heat can liberate us from the concern for climate change at large. We need to focus more and more on the industrial activities which are environment friendly. In order to save our planet we must fight global warming by growing more trees. The activities which require use of oil, gas and coal should be controlled and the treatment centers for the waste decomposition should be established .As end consumers we must cut down the use of industrial products which are not based on the principle of green technologies. More over we should try to take electricity connection from only those companies which are producing electricity in a way which is possibly the least damaging to our planet. It is now that we realize the need for cleaning our planet and making it worth living for our next generation.
Global warming is the term used to describe the increase in the temperature due to the presence of carbon dioxide in the air. However different scientist and researchers have different view about global warming theory.
James Hansen‘s Theory
James Hansen was a scientist in Goddered institute of. In 1988 he presented his James Hansen theory in front of the senate that emerging green house effect is changing the climate of our planet. He was 99% sure about it. Many other scientists working in the same institute found it are impulsive. However the basics of the theory proved to be really true afterwards. The theory was based on the studies conducted regarding the change in earth’s climate, temperature increase and carbon dioxide emission. The measurement of earth’s crust was measured to be 0.3 and 0.6 degrees Celsius. It was also forecasted that the amount of carbon dioxide in air has increased to about 30%. Scientist conducted research and used their results to compare the computerized climate prototypes and founded that carbon dioxide is present in atmosphere which is the main cause of global warming. The theory further stated that burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas are causing damage to ozone layer. The climate changes resulting from the melting of ice would result in higher sea levels and increase in natural disasters like floods.
What is Global Warming Theory & Support from NASA
Global warming is considered to be most controversial issue because many scientists still believe that the temperature of the earth has not reached to the point that we shall suffer severe climate changes. However the computer models developed by the scientists in NASA provided enough data to declare that past ten years broke the record of previous global warming. Another survey conducted in Goddered University declared that 2008 was the coolest year during the past ten years. If we take the average calculation of the variable temperature during the past ten years we would see that global temperature is changing certainly. The scientists at GISS conformed to the James Hansen’s results. They mutually agreed that the uncontrolled activities are producing more amount of carbon dioxide in the air each year this would rise the earth’s temperature hence resulting in global warming.
Some Important Phenomenon
The glaciers at the Larsen B ice shell are melting with speed. The pictures taken from the NASA satellites showed that the presence of high temperature is melting the frozen untouched lands immensely. An Italian news channel postulated that the process of glaciers being meltdown is normal, but the phenomenon is accelerating very fast. This fast change in global temperature is the biggest concern for entire human race. The world wide support for global warming theory is increasing because as the time is changing the predictions of scientists are becoming true. It is need of time that we bear our responsibility as responsible human beings and try to find ways to decrease the rate of pollution. Only the reduction in pollution can help us finding the causes of global warming. Sun is of many uses but our dangerous activities have made sun and its rays harmful for our earth and survival. Sunlight is essential for the activities of our eco system and water cycle. If we tend to destroy the ozone layer by pollution the useful energy from sun would become a threat for us. The blockade of heat in the earth’s inner layer and in our environment has raised the temperature worldwide. This increase in temperature is affecting our health and we tend to use artificial space cooling for this purpose which in turn puts more pressure on our economy and our climate.
The issue of global warming is not new and the debate started in 19th century when the scientist realized that there are not enough trees in world, which are essential for our survival. The discovery of ice age in the past demonstrated that the problem of climate changes occurred even before the man realized its presence. The debate is still there that who is responsible for the major climate changes in the world? Is it natural? Is it due to the hidden forces of nature, Or entirely due the unchecked activities of the man. The awareness and research in the field of environmental sciences has somewhat considered man responsible for the current change in global temperatures.
Important Predictions about Global Warming
The important predictions in the past shed light on the issue of global warming at large. A Swedish scientist in 1896 predicted that the world’s climate would change overtime due to the emission of carbon dioxide resulting from the burning of fossil fuels like oil, gas and coal. The smoke resulting from the human activities like coal engines, cooking and factories was spitting dangerous gases in the air. His prediction was true but at that time he had no solid evidence to defend himself. The scientist gave solid reason to prove that no such activity exists that can change or alter our environment. They also claimed that the small human activities can not change the climate at all. However if you analyze this forecast in current scenario, you found it to be true.
Guy Stewart Callendar’s Claim in 1930’s
During the period of 1930’s, people tended to feel the change in the temperature of north Atlantic region. Scientist at large was unable to identify any significant reasons for this sudden climate change when the temperature of Atlantic region started to rise. It was Guy Stewart Callendar who raised his voice to tell people and scientist that global warming was on its way. It was later in the century in about 1950 when scientist looked deeply into the matter and came with obvious reasons to declare it as a step towards global warming. In 1960 a research was conducted to calculate the emission of harmful gases in the air and it was hence proved that the amount of carbon dioxide is soaring day by day. Later in the century the discussions on the global warming and its related causes in print media and on TV created awareness even in the common man. People and industrialists were concerned greatly about the pros of cons of human activities on climate.
Current Progress in Global Warming
In the late 1990’s the processions regarding the need for green environment put greater pressure on industry and government to take measures in stopping pollution. The awareness among masses to buy and sell products which are based on the green technology brought significant change in the industrial processes. Scientist tried to look for the more safe and healthy energy sources. The energy sources like oil, gas and burning of coal were declared harmful for the human beings and climate. Moreover the campaigns ran to help stop deforestation and growth of trees recovered some of the destructed forests. The concern for the environment and the alternative fuel generation also arouse the need to help revive wild life. The destruction of forests reduced the amount of oxygen in the air and immense carbon dioxide also destroyed the ozone layer. The destruction of ozone layer created problems like skin cancer due the harmful ultra violet rays of the sun. it was in 1970 that the global temperature stared to rise and among other factors , artificial heating and cooling systems have also greatly contributed to the emission of harmful gases .
The gradual decrease in the intensity of the amount of sunlight reaching to the earth’s surface is known as Global Dimming. However it aids in the process of global warming but at a relatively slow speed.
What is Global Dimming, The Causes of the Global Dimming
Global dimming is created by the pollution present on our planet caused by human activities. The presence of the aerosol particles in the atmosphere is basically responsible for destruction of our planet. The particles like aerosols absorb the sunlight, and it sent back to space again. These particles can also become nuclei for the clouds. The increase in the rate of pollution also increases the number of these particulates in the form of droplets. These droplets give rise to the clouds which are transparent and hence reflect the sunlight back into the space. These smaller droplets are also responsible for reduce amount of rain. These clouds can seize the heat from the sun as well as the radiance form the earth. The effects of these clouds are variable. In day time often these clouds often stop the sunlight from reaching to earth at large therefore leaves a much more cooling effect. However this process gradually slows down in night and the re radiance retains back some of the heat of the sun from going back to space.
What is Pan Evaporation, How Pan Evaporation Occurs
Pan evaporation is the combination of the measurement of climatic elements. These climatic elements include temperature humidity, wind and solar energy. The process of evaporation increases with increase in temperature and declines with the drop in temperature and the presence of humidity in the air. Pan evaporation method is used mostly by farmers. Unlike global warming nobody paid much attention to the process of evaporation unless the scientists in Israel and Europe found that even with increase in the global warming the rate of evaporation is still declining. Solar ir-radiance is labeled as the main reason for this change. Pan evaporation data is considered most authentic source for defending global dimming. However the process of pan radiation does not only depend upon the solar radiation it is also dependent upon the wind speed and speed of evaporation.
Causes of Global Pollution
There many causes of global pollution like burning of fossil fuels, smoke from the industrial chimneys, the noise and emission of gases from vehicles, artificial cooling and heating systems and deforestation. All these sources contribute to emission of immense industrial wastes, acids, fluids and gases. The presence of the gases like carbon dioxide, sulfur, black carbon and carbon monoxide has raised many problems for our survival. These pollution sources have created an imbalance in our climatic activities which has brought us to the era of global warming and global dimming. This imbalance has also resulted in lower rains and fresh water problem for our survival. The tiny particles like soot have disturbed the water cycle and we are standing on the verge of destruction. The heat from the sun is an important constituent of water cycle thus the presence of pollutants in the air has reflects back the sunlight and hence results in less water vapor. The less accumulation of water vapors result in less rains and ultimately the discrepancy in eco system. The climatic changes in the atmosphere are greatly contributed to the global dimming. The scientists believe that the heat form the sun does not reach to the earth properly therefore we do not receive rains and hence there is reduction in monsoon in many parts of the world like Africa and china. Moreover scientists also claim that the increase in pollutants decrease the size of water vapors, hence it does not transform into clouds.
Earth Climate can be described in many ways based on the speculations of the people. Like for an example climate can be judged by rise and fall in temperature, the pressure of the winds and the change in the amount of rainfall. The climate of different regions depends upon the difference of height from the sea level. The amount of energy present in the earth’s atmosphere is largely contributed to the sun rays.
The Difference between Climate and Weather
Earth Weather can change within few hours and therefore the change is not constant. In contrast to the weather the earth’s climate changes are somewhat constant and do not change abruptly. For example if the ice from the glaciers starts to melt due to the increase in temperature would therefore have long effects on the region. This change is a climatic change. However if the temperature of any particular region drops and falls according to the height from the sea level it is a change in temperature. For example if in pleasant summer it stars to hail in hilly area it would be a change in weather and not climate. Hence in order to conclude the change in temperature for a longer period of time is known as climate.
Changes in Climate over the Period of Centuries
The scientists believed that the climate of the earth has changed overtime in the period of centuries. They have based their assumptions on the presence of the plants decay and other fossils in the soil in the form of coal and salts. Our world has gone through mighty changes. The concept of ice age refers to the global warming and its effects on the environment. Our planet has many different climates which are dependent upon the change in regions. Different regions of the world have different temperature for example the weather in Europe is pleasant in summers and very cold in winter whereas the climate of the Australia is relatively dry and prone to wind storms. The climate of the desert is dry and faces droughts. However the rainy forests present in India, Bangladesh and Brazil are much more fertile and the locals enjoy fresh air. The survival of the animals is also dependent upon the climate of the region. Suppose if the Brazilian forests start to get dry and the plants start to die because of the immense heat. What would happen to the species of different reptiles living there? Obviously the reptiles who survive by hiding them selves in the thick forests would die. The main reason is that the climate in jungles like Amazon supports the living of reptiles more as compared to other animals.
Survival of Living Being in Accordance with the Climate
The survival of living organisms is also depending upon the climatic conditions of the region. The living organisms like human beings, plants and animals also grow and develop according to the conditions of the weather. The climate of the desert is dry and dark this is because there is less rain and more sunlight. The animals which live in deserts have thin skin and they can survive without water for longer period of time like camel. The habits of human beings also vary along with the changes in climate. The habits of the people living in coastal regions are more out going and they enjoy the breeze at sea. Whereas those who live in the highly cool regions they are afraid to go out for picnics and fun. The survival of the plants is also dependent on the climate. Like the climate of the deserts, allow the survival of plants which are thick and small in size like cactus.