Sunlight does not only give us warmth and comfort. It can also provide us a safe and inexpensive way 2 generate electricity. Solar cells or solar panels are often used to convert the energy from the sun into electricity. The solar energy is converted to electricity by using photo voltaic process.
How Solar Cells or Solar Panels Works, How the Energy from the Sun is used
In order to generate electricity from sunlight solar panels or solar cells are usually implanted on roof tops. These solar cells or solar panels are made up of crystalline silicon. When the sunlight reaches the earth it is in the form of photons. These photons when fall on the solar cells. The semiconductor material like silicon absorbs the energy from the sun. The solar cells or solar panels are built on the mechanism that they allow the electrons to flow in one direction hence generating electric current. In order to get electricity from these solar cells or solar panels an array of cells is required. A single cell alone cannot accomplish the electricity requirements. Solar cells or solar panels are able to convert the solar heat into direct current; this is because of the Photo voltaic effect. In a photo voltaic effect electrons are transferred from one material to the other, it results in the generation of voltage between two currently acting electrodes. The generation of electricity through this technique is comparatively inexpensive and involves simple procedures.
How Solar Cell or Solar Panels Works & Structure of a Solar Cell or Solar Panels, Types of Solar Cell or Solar Panels
Solar cells or solar panels are most effective and cost friendly way to generate electricity. The structure and installation of the Solar cells or solar panels is so easy that even military is making use of the solar energy. The energy from the sun fall on the Solar cells or solar panels in the form of photons, these are small energy and light packets. The structure of single solar panel contains a glass on the upper most layer .in other words we can say a glass shield protects the remaining cell. This glass shield allows only light to pass through. Hence in case of rain the cell is not destroyed. Afterwards a mixture of silicone and some good conductive material is often mixed to make the base of solar cell, which helps the solar panel to save solar energy. This silicone base is also protected by the anti reflected coating; this reflective coating helps the cell to retain more than 70% light. Electric circuit works only if two electrodes are fixed to support flow of electrons. Hence in the case of silicone crystalline cells, N-type silicone electrode and P-type silicone electrodes are connected to support flow of electrons. The back of the cell is colored black which supports the cell by acting as conductor. The working of the solar is due to the junction of p type and n type electrode. The p type electrode contains positive charge and n type contains negative charge. The extra valance atoms or electrons in this case move from n type electrode to p type electrode. This is because the p type electrode contains holes in it and when the electrons and protons reach to depletion stage (equilibrium between electrons and protons).electric charge is created.
Uses of Solar Cells or Solar Panels, Application of Solar Cells or Solar Panels
The process of electricity generation from the photo voltaic modules often involves an array of photovoltaic components (solar cells). This array is usually used to generate electricity for larger industrial units and is capable of producing electricity in Kilowatts. The electricity which is produced using solar energy is carried to electric grid to be used further. However if certain amount of electricity needs to be stored, batteries are used for this purpose. The solar cells or solar panels can also become part of other applications like solar calculators, solar lanterns, cell phone chargers, solar street lights.